The stagecoach era ended abruptly when the Salem tunnel opened, and two days later on December 20, 1839, a train from Boston made its first passage through Ipswich. It arrived about 9 o’clock on a Friday morning with 50 passengers, taking only 34 minutes from Salem. Townspeople were delighted, but the opening of the railroad and the end of stagecoach travel led to the decline of Ipswich as one of the most important towns of Massachusetts, and removal of its courts.
The Eastern Railroad from Boston to Salem opened for travel two months later on August 27, 1838. A new era of travel dawned at once on the wondering eyes of the shore people of Essex County. The cars took eleven hundred the first day with no fatigue to anybody, kept it up day after day and in about a month ran it up to sixteen hundred while crowds of curious spectators gathered near the depot at each arrival and departure.
So began the Eastern Railroad, the giant that stretched forth its arm and laid literally a hand of iron upon the bosom of Essex County. On December 18, 1839 the cars ran through the Salem Tunnel and to Ipswich. The town was delighted but the opening of this road led the way to the removal of the courts from Ipswich. It had long been one of the three shire towns of the county and reluctantly yielded this prestige.
By the next summer the Eastern Railroad had its cars running to Newburyport and on November 9, 1840 it leaped the Merrimack and made its entry into New Hampshire in triumph, fifty four miles from the Massachusetts capitol.
The document establishing the Newburyport Railroad lists initial subscribers and the number of shares owned. It refers to two acts: One establishing the Georgetown Branch Railway Company, and another establishing the Newburyport Railway Company, both in 1846.